Taxonomy

Common Name: SHINER, TOPEKA
Phylum: CHORDATA
Class: OSTEICHTHYES
Order: CYPRINIFORMES
Family: CYPRINIDAE
Genus: NOTROPIS
Species: TOPEKA

Taxonomic Authority: GILBERT

Taxonomy References: 002

Status

FEDERAL ENDANGERED
NONGAME
STATE ENDANGERED
STATE RANK S1
GLOBAL RANK G3

Status References: 005, 012

Habitat Summary

"Inhabits pools of small streams with clear water and sand, gravel or rubble bottoms."

Primary Habitat: "Aquatic - river/stream"

References: 001, 008

Distribution

General Occurrence in State:

"Occurs in central Missouri and northward into the prairie region. Populatons have declined drastically in the last few decades. *001*. The strongest population is in the Moniteau Creek watershed *019*."

County Occurrence
Known Likely Unknown Not Likely Historic Extirpated
BOONE AUDRAINADAIR  
CALDWELL CHARITONANDREW  
CALLAWAY CLAYATCHISON  
CLARK CLINTONBARRY  
COOPER COLEBARTON  
DAVIESS DEKALBBATES  
HARRISON FRANKLINBENTON  
MONITEAU GASCONADEBOLLINGER  
MORGAN GENTRYBUCHANAN  
PETTIS GRUNDYBUTLER  
PUTNAM HOWARDCAMDEN  
RANDOLPH JACKSONCAPE GIRARDEAU  
RAY LIVINGSTONCARROLL  
SCOTLAND MERCERCARTER  
  MONTGOMERYCASS  
  OSAGECEDAR  
  SCHUYLERCHRISTIAN  
  WARRENCRAWFORD  
   DADE  
   DALLAS  
   DENT  
   DOUGLAS  
   DUNKLIN  
   GREENE  
   HENRY  
   HICKORY  
   HOLT  
   HOWELL  
   IRON  
   JASPER  
   JEFFERSON  
   JOHNSON  
   KNOX  
   LACLEDE  
   LAFAYETTE  
   LAWRENCE  
   LEWIS  
   LINCOLN  
   LINN  
   MACON  
   MADISON  
   MARIES  
   MARION  
   MCDONALD  
   MILLER  
   MISSISSIPPI  
   MONROE  
   NEW MADRID  
   NEWTON  
   NODAWAY  
   OREGON  
   OZARK  
   PEMISCOT  
   PERRY  
   PHELPS  
   PIKE  
   PLATTE  
   POLK  
   PULASKI  
   RALLS  
   REYNOLDS  
   RIPLEY  
   SALINE  
   SCOTT  
   SHANNON  
   SHELBY  
   ST. CHARLES  
   ST. CLAIR  
   ST. FRANCOIS  
   ST. LOUIS  
   STE. GENEVIEVE  
   STODDARD  
   STONE  
   SULLIVAN  
   TANEY  
   TEXAS  
   VERNON  
   WASHINGTON  
   WAYNE  
   WEBSTER  
   WORTH  
   WRIGHT  

References for distribution: 001, 003, 004, 019

Distribution by Watersheds

Des Moines R.
Grand R. from Headwaters to Shoal Creek
Thompson R.
Chariton R. from Headwaters to Shuteye Creek
Little Chariton R.
Mo. R. from Kansas City to Little Chariton R.
Mo. R. from Little Chariton R. to Gasconade R.
Lamine R.

Comments:
""

Distribution by Ecoregions

Central Till Plains
Ozark Highlands

""

Distribution by Potential Natural Vegetation

Bluestem Prairie/Oak Hickory Forest
Oak-Hickory Forest

Distribution by Natural Divisions of Missouri

Glaciated Plains: Western
Glaciated Plains: Grand River
Glaciated Plains: Eastern
Big Rivers
Big Rivers: Upper Missouri
Big Rivers: Lower Missouri
Big Rivers: Upper Mississippi
Big Rivers: Lower Mississippi
Ozark Border: Missouri River
Ozark: Springfield Plateau

Habitat Associations

Species is associated with "Aquatic" habitats

National Wetlands Inventory Association:

Riverine

Aquatic Associations:

"Riverine, intermittent", "Unconsolidated bottom, cobble/gravel"
"Riverine, intermittent", "Unconsolidated bottom, sand"

References for Aquatic Associations:

001, 008

Habitat Types:

Intermittent Stream
Permanent Stream

References for Habitat Types: 006

Terrestrial Natural Communities:

References for Terrestrial Natural Communities:

Food Habits

Trophic Level:

"Carnivore"

Larval Food Habits

Comments for larval food habits:
""

References for larval food habits:

Juvenile Food Habits

Comments for juvenile food habits:
""

References for juvenile food habits:

Adult Food Habits

Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitos, gnats); Larva stage
Osteichthyes (bony fishes); Larva stage
Cypriniformes (minnows, carps, suckers); Larva stage
Hemiptera (water bugs, water boatmen, stink bugs); Not Specified
Trichoptera (caddisflies); Not Specified
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitos, gnats); Not Specified
Hymenoptera (sawflies, ants, wasps, bees); Not Specified
Zooplankton; Not Specified
Chlorophyta (green algae); Not Specified
Ostracods (Eucypris); Not Specified
Copepods (Cyclops, Calanus); Not Specified
Insects Insects; Not Specified
Ephemeroptera (mayflies); Not Specified
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies); Not Specified
Hydrozoans (hydra); Not Specified
Roundworms; Not Specified
Arrow worms; Not Specified
Annelids (segmented worms); Not Specified
Bivalve molluscs; Not Specified
Branchiopods (Daphnia, Cladocera); Not Specified

Comments for adult food habits:
""

References for adult food habits: 009, 016, 017

Niche Requirements

Feeding Juvenile Niche Requirements

Turbidity: clear water
Bottom type: sand
Bottom type: gravel
Bottom type: rubble
Water level: permanently flooded
Inland wetlands: ditch
Inland wetlands: intermittent stream - flow stops, pools remain
Inland wetlands: oxbow
Inland wetlands specified in comments(00250)
Natural features: pools

References for feeding juvenile niche requirements: 018, 001, 008

Breeding Adult Niche Requirements

Turbidity: clear water
Siltation: low
Bottom type: sand
Bottom type: gravel
Bottom type: rubble
Underwater cover: woody debris
Current velocity specified in comments(00150)
Water level: permanently flooded
Water depth specified in comments(00230)
Elevation 501-1000'
Inland wetlands: ditch
Inland wetlands: intermittent stream - flow stops, pools remain
Inland wetlands: oxbow
Inland wetlands specified in comments(00250)
Natural features: pools
Natural features specified in comments(00280)

References for breeding adult niche requirements: 018, 001, 008, 009, 011, 015, 020

Feeding Adult Niche Requirements

Turbidity: clear water
Turbidity specified in comments(00040)
Bottom type: sand
Bottom type: gravel
Bottom type: rubble
Bottom type specified in comments(00100)
Underwater cover: woody debris
Current velocity: no noticable current
Water level: permanently flooded
Water depth specified in comments(00230)
Inland wetlands: ditch
Inland wetlands: intermittent stream - flow stops, pools remain
Inland wetlands: permanent stream
Stream order: first order stream
Stream order: second order stream
Stream order: third order stream
Stream order: fourth order stream
Stream order: fifth order stream
Stream order specified in comments(00260)
Natural features: pools
Natural features: runs or raceways
Natural features specified in comments(00280)

References for feeding adult niche requirements: 001, 003, 008, 009, 011, 015

Resting Adult Niche Requirements

Stream order specified in comments(00260)

References for resting adult niche requirements: 001, 003, 008, 009

Niche Requirement Summary

Bottom type specified in comments(00100)
Bottom type: gravel
Bottom type: rubble
Bottom type: sand
Current velocity specified in comments(00150)
Current velocity: no noticable current
Elevation 501-1000'
Inland wetlands specified in comments(00250)
Inland wetlands: ditch
Inland wetlands: intermittent stream - flow stops, pools remain
Inland wetlands: oxbow
Inland wetlands: permanent stream
Natural features specified in comments(00280)
Natural features: pools
Natural features: runs or raceways
Siltation: low
Stream order specified in comments(00260)
Stream order: fifth order stream
Stream order: first order stream
Stream order: fourth order stream
Stream order: second order stream
Stream order: third order stream
Turbidity specified in comments(00040)
Turbidity: clear water
Underwater cover: woody debris
Water depth specified in comments(00230)
Water level: permanently flooded

Comments for all niche requirement fields:
Code Comment
00040:In MN, were found in clearer vegetated backwaters of streams that were generally turbid *15*.
00100:In MN, adults were most often found over substrates of silt-covered cobble *15*. In another MN study, used both instream and off-channel sites; off-channel sites had a higher percentage of silt substrate (average 75%) than instream sites *18*.
00150:In MN, current velocity at spawning sites was 1'/second *15*. In another MN study, occurred in off-channel habitats where there was no current, and in instream habitats, where flow averaged .44 m/second. However, each instream habitat site had an area where there was no current. Juveniles used off-channel habitats with no current extensively in the fall. *18*. Prefers current velocity of less than 1'/sec *020*.
00230:In MN, adults preferred areas where water depth was approximately 1'. Depth at spawning sites was 1.5' *15*. Water depth at instream sites in MN averaged .5 m, and averaged .78 m at off-channel sites (oxbows, cutoff tributary channels, and excavated ponds in the floodplain) *18*. Another MN study suggested a depth of 0.4-2' *020*.
00260:In a MO study, 72.1% of collections were from streams of order 3 or 4 *03*. In MN, were most commonly found in low-order tributaries or in headwater reaches of larger streams *18*.
00280:Adults were found in vegetated backwaters of MN streams, where the water was clearer. Sites where most were found were generally the most naturally stable channels of the stream. *15*. Spawn in pools over nests of sunfish *09,01*.

Life History Information

Territoriality: defends nesting territory
Territoriality specified in comments(026)
Regulatory factors specified in comments(035)
Age and growth information specified in comments(038)
School throughout life
Other life history information specified in comments(099)
Other life history information specified in comments(099)
Origin in state: native
Seasonal distribution in state: all seasons
Closely associated plant or animal species specified in comments(003)
Foraging strategy: gleaning
Foraging sites: water
Breeding season specified in comments(007)
Spawning site specified in comments(012)
Age at sexual maturity specified in comments(022)

Comments about Life History:
Code Comment
003:Commonly associated with redfin shiner, sand shiner, common shiner, and red shiner *01*. Spawn over nests of green sunfish and orangespotted sunfish *01,09*.
007:Spawns from late May to mid-July *01*. In KS, spawns June-August *08*
012:Spawn over nests of orangespotted sunfish *01*. In MN, successfully reproduced in off-channel habitats (oxbows, cutoff tributary channels, and excavated ponds in the floodplain), often attaining high densities in these habitats *18*.
026:Male defends small territory around periphery of sunfish nest *01*
022:Mature when 2 summers old *01*. In KS, mature as yearlings *08*
099:In KS, life span 2 years *08*, normally life span doesn't exceed 3 summers *01*
038:Adults commonly 1.6-2.6", to maximum of about 3". Males grow faster and reach larger size than females *01*.
099:In MN, adult abundance was greater in May than in July *18*.
035:In MN Topeka shiner streams, 4 out 34 examined black bullheads consumed Topeka shiners *021*.

References for life history: 018, 001, 004, 008, 009, 022, 021

Management

Beneficial Management Practices:
Water - develop/maintain freshwater marsh
Water - control sedimentation
Water - control pollution (thermal, physical, chemical)
Water - develop/maintain streamside vegetation
Water - stabilize streambanks
Water - exclude livestock from water
Agricultural - control erosion
Agricultural - maintain riparian habitats
Agricultural - control grazing by domestic livestock
Agricultural - maintain streambanks
Agricultural - maintain streamside vegetation
Agricultural - no-till farming
Agricultural - develop/maintain grassy borders around crop fields

Beneficial Management References: 004, 013, 019

Adverse Management Practices:
Agricultural - application of pesticides
Agricultural - application of fertilizer - organic
Agricultural - application of fertilizer - inorganic

Adverse Management References: 019

Comments on Management: Habitat degradation and fragmentation have contributed to the species' decline. In addition, stocking piscivorous fish (such as largemouth bass) in ponds constructed in watersheds containing topeka shiners increases predation. Introduced competitors such as the blackstripe topminnow may also be adverse. *013* Where permanent road crossings are necessary, bridges are preferable to culverts *014*. Streams in the Great Plain region have been adversely altered due to channelization and increased turbidity and temperature. Important management practices include maintaining sub-watershed, riparian zone, and stream channel. A recently installed low-water crossing with drop-box inlets downstream of sub-watershed 1 might be a barrier to fish movement *019*. Reduce runoff from agriculture, urban development, road construction, row-crops, and pastures. Minimize spring fertilizer application. Emergency spill plans for CAFOs should be required. *022*.

References for Management Comments: 013, 014, 022, 019

References

Reference Code Citation
(001)Pflieger, W.L. 1997. The Fishes Of Missouri, Revised Edition. Mo Dept. Of Conservation. Jefferson City, Mo. 372 Pp.
(002)Nelson, Joseph S., Edwin J. Crossman, Héctor Espinosa-Pérez, Lloyd T. Findley, Carter R. Gilbert, Robert N. Lea, and James D. Williams. 2004. Common And Scientific Names Of Fishes From The United States, Canada and Mexico (6th Ed.). Amer. Fish Soc. Spec. Publ. No. 29. 386 pp.
(003)Unpb Pflieger, W.L. The Stream Resources Of Missouri. D-J Project F-1-R-28. Study S-20. Mo Dept. Of Conservation, 1110 S. College Ave., Columbia, Mo 65201. (573-882-9880).
(004)Unpb Pflieger, W.L. Mo Dept. Of Conservation, 1110 S. College Ave., Columbia, Mo 65201. (573-882-9880).
(005)The Wildlife Code of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, P.O. Box 180, Jefferson City, MO 65102. 573-751-4115.
(006)Kelly, G. (Ed.) 1986. Animal Habitat Relations Handbook. Mo Dept. Of Conservation and U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Jefferson City, Mo. 293 Pp.
(007)Thom, R.H. and J.H. Wilson. 1980 The Natural Divisions Of Missouri. Trans. Mo Acad. Sci. 14:9-24.
(008)Cross, F.B. 1967. Handbook Of Fishes Of Kansas. Univ. Ks Mus. Nat. Hist. Misc. Publ. 45. 357 Pp.
(009)Unpb Kerns, H.A. 1983. Aspects Of The Life History Of The Topeka Shiner, Notropis Topeka (Gilbert), In Kansas. M.A. Thesis, Univ. Of Kansas. Lawrence. 27 Pp.
(010)Pflieger, W.L. 1989. Aquatic Community Classification System For Missouri. Mo Dept. Of Conservation. Aquatic Series No. 19. 70 Pp + Supplement.
(011)Unpb Pflieger, W.L. Collection Records. Mo Dept Of Conservation, 1110 College Ave., Columbia, Mo 65201. 573-882-9880.
(012)Missouri Natural Heritage Program. 2004. Missouri Species and Communities of Conservation Concern Checklist. Missouri Department Of Conservation. Jefferson City, Missouri. 47 Pp.
(013)Missouri Department Of Conservation. 1999. An Action Plan For The Topeka Shiner (Notropis Topeka). Mo Dept. Of Conservation, Jefferson City, Mo. 36 Pp.
(014)Missouri Department Of Conservation. Best Management Practices: Topeka Shiner. Mo Dept. Conservation. Jefferson City, Mo.
(015)Kultunen, A., L.P. Aadland, S.L. Johnson, J. Harvey and K.L. Terry. 2000. Microhabitat Relationships Of The Topeka Shiner. Mn Dept. Nat. Res., Div. Fisheries and Wildl., Ecol. Services Section. Fergus Falls, Mn. 21 Pp.
(016)Hatch, J.T. and S. Besaw. 2000. Diverse Food Use In Minnesota Populations Of The Topeka Shiner (Notropis Topeka). General College And James Ford Bell Mus. Nat. Hist., Univ. Of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 11 Pp.
(017)Hatch, J.T. and S. Besaw. 2001. Food Use In Minnesota Populations Of The Topeka Shiner (Notropis Topeka). J. Freshwater Ecol. 16(2):229-233.
(018)unpb Dahle, S.P. 2001. Studies of Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka) life history and distribution in Minnesota. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Minnesota. 72 pp.
(019)Bayless, M.A., M.G. McManus, and J.F. Fairchild. 2003. Geomorphic, water quality and fish community patterns associated with the distribution of Notropis topeka in a central Missouri watershed. American Midland Naturalist 150: 58-72.
(020)Kuitunen, A. 2001. Microhabitat and instream flow needs of the Topeka shiner in the Rock River Watershed, MN. MN Dept. Nat. Res. Div. Ecol. Services. Stream Habitat Prog. 40p.
(021)Dahle, S.P. and J.T. Hatch. 2002. Gauging the threat of predation on the Topeka shiner (Notrapis topeka) in Minnesota. Final Report for MN Dept. Nat. Resources Nat. Heritage and Nongame Research Program. 13p.
(022)Bayless, M.A. and M.G.McManus. 2001. Impacts of CAFOs and water quality on Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka) populations in the Moniteau Creek Watershed, Cooper and Moniteau counties Missouri. Final Report. Endangered Species Project NO. E-133. 62p.
018, 022, 019, 020