Class: AVES
Genus: FALCO
Subspecies: TUNDRIUS

Taxonomic Authority: TRUNSTALL

Taxonomy References: 002, 020



Status References: 020, 030, 031, 033, 023, 024

Habitat Summary

"Require open country for hunting. Use open woodlands. Historically nested on cliffs. Tall buildings with nest sites free of human disturbance are also suitable."

Primary Habitat: "Savanna/Shrub/Woodland - woodl"

References: 021, 022


General Occurrence in State:

"Rare transient, casual winter resident, accidental summer resident *01*. Reintroduction program started in 1991; first nesting in state after reintroduction occurred in 1997 *31*."

County Occurrence
Known Likely Unknown Not Likely Historic Extirpated

References for distribution: 001, 003, 004, 005, 006, 007, 008, 010, 011, 012, 013, 015, 016, 017, 031, 032, 014, 018, 037, 039

Distribution by Watersheds

South Fabius R.
Miss. R. from Des Moines R. to MO. R.; and North R.
Cuivre R.
Dardenne Creek
Miss. R. from St. Louis to River Aux Vases
Meramec R.
Bourbeuse R.
Big R.
Miss. R. from River Aux Vases to Ohio R.
Castor R. and Castor R. Diversion Channel
St. Francis R. from Wappapello Dam to Arkansas Border
Little R.
Mo. R. from Iowa Border to Nishnabotna R.
Nishnabotna R.
Mo. R. from Nishnabotna R. to Nodaway R.
Nodaway R.
Mo.R. from Nodaway to Kansas City
Platte R.
One Hundred and Two R.
Grand R. from Headwaters to Shoal Creek
Thompson R.
Grand R. from Shoal Creek to MO. R.
Chariton R. from Shuteye Creek to Mo. R.
Little Chariton R.
Little Osage R.
Marmaton R.
Osage R. from Headwaters to Warsaw, MO.
Sac R.
Pomme De Terre R.
South Grand R.
Osage R. from Warsaw to Bagnell Dam
Niangua R.
Osage R. from Bagnell Dam to Mo. R.
Gasconade R. from Big Piney R. to Mo. R.
Mo. R. from Kansas City to Little Chariton R.
Mo. R. from Little Chariton R. to Gasconade R.
Mo. R. from Gasconade R. to Miss. R.
White R. above Tablerock Dam
James R.
White R. below Tablerock Dam and Little North Fork White R.
Spring R.
Indian Creek

"Likely to occur in units listed, based on county occurrence."

Distribution by Ecoregions

Central Till Plains
Mississippi River Alluvial Plains
Osage Plains
Ozark Highlands


Distribution by Potential Natural Vegetation

Bluestem Prairie/Oak Hickory Forest
Cedar Glades
Oak-Hickory Forest
Oak-Hickory-Pine Forest
Southern Floodplain Forest

Distribution by Natural Divisions of Missouri

Glaciated Plains
Glaciated Plains: Western
Glaciated Plains: Grand River
Glaciated Plains: Eastern
Glaciated Plains: Lincoln Hills
Big Rivers
Big Rivers: Upper Missouri
Big Rivers: Lower Missouri
Big Rivers: Upper Mississippi
Big Rivers: Lower Mississippi
Ozark Border
Ozark Border: Missouri River
Ozark Border: Mississippi River
Ozark: Springfield Plateau
Ozark: Upper Ozark
Ozark: Elk River
Ozark: White River
Mississippi Lowlands
Mississippi Lowlands: Crowley's Ridge
Mississippi Lowlands: Lowlands
Osage Plains

Habitat Associations

Species is associated with "Terrestrial" habitats

National Wetlands Inventory Association:

Aquatic Associations:

References for Aquatic Associations:

Habitat Types:

Limestone Bluff and Cave
Perennial Grass (Warm season)
Perennial Grass (cool-season)

References for Habitat Types: 021, 022, 025

Terrestrial Natural Communities:

Limestone/Dolomite Prairie
Dry Limestone/Dolomite Prairie
Dry-Mesic Limestone/Dolomite Prairie
Chert Prairie
Dry Chert Prairie
Dry-Mesic Chert Prairie
Sandstone/Shale Prairie
Dry Sandstone/Shale Prairie
Dry-Mesic Sandstone/Shale Prairie
Sand Prairie
Dry Sand Prairie
Dry-Mesic Sand Prairie
Hardpan Prairie
Dry Limestone/Dolomite Cliff
Moist Limestone/Dolomite Cliff
Dry Sandstone Cliff
Moist Sandstone Cliff
Dry Chert Cliff
Moist Chert Cliff

References for Terrestrial Natural Communities: 021, 022, 025

Food Habits

Trophic Level:


Larval Food Habits

Comments for larval food habits:

References for larval food habits:

Juvenile Food Habits

Comments for juvenile food habits:

References for juvenile food habits:

Adult Food Habits

Leporidae (rabbits); Juvenile stage
Amphibians; Not Specified
Mammals; Not Specified
Soricidae (shrews); Not Specified
Cricetidae (woodrats, mice, voles, lemmings); Not Specified
Birds; Not Specified
Anseriformes (swans, geese, and ducks); Not Specified
Tetraonidae (grouse and ptarmigan); Not Specified
Charadriiformes; Not Specified
Columbiformes (pigeons and doves); Not Specified
Passeriformes; Not Specified
Corvidae (jays, magpies, and crows); Not Specified
Insects Insects; Not Specified
Leporidae (rabbits); Adult Stage

Comments for adult food habits:
"Diet consists mainly of birds *22*. Usually found in areas where"

References for adult food habits: 020, 021, 022, 038

Niche Requirements

Feeding Juvenile Niche Requirements

General habitat association specified in comments(00270)
Isolation from humans specified in comments(00700)

References for feeding juvenile niche requirements: 021, 026

Resting Juvenile Niche Requirements

Isolation from humans specified in comments(00700)

References for resting juvenile niche requirements: 021, 026

Breeding Adult Niche Requirements

Other niche requirements specified in comments(99999)
Natural features: cliffs, ledges

References for breeding adult niche requirements: 020, 021, 027, 031, 026

Feeding Adult Niche Requirements

Floodplain wetlands: connected scour hole
General habitat association specified in comments(00270)
Successional stage: abandoned field
Successional stage: stable prairie/grassland
Isolation from humans specified in comments(00700)

References for feeding adult niche requirements: 021, 028, 035, 026

Resting Adult Niche Requirements

Isolation from humans specified in comments(00700)

References for resting adult niche requirements: 021, 026

Niche Requirement Summary

Floodplain wetlands: connected scour hole
General habitat association specified in comments(00270)
Isolation from humans specified in comments(00700)
Natural features: cliffs, ledges
Other niche requirements specified in comments(99999)
Successional stage: abandoned field
Successional stage: stable prairie/grassland

Comments for all niche requirement fields:
Code Comment
00270:Need open country for hunting *21*.
00700:Should be safe from human disturbance *21,26*.
99999:Subspecies F. peregrinus anatum formerly nested in MO *20*. Breeding adults in other areas require cliffs within .5-1 mile of water *27* and safety from human disturbances *21,26*. In Missouri have successfully used nest boxes located on tall buildings and on power plants *31*.

Life History Information

Home range size specified in comments(028)
Mortality rate specified in comments(031)
Migration patterns specified in comments(033)
Regulatory factors specified in comments(035)
Other life history information specified in comments(099)
Origin in state: native
Seasonal distribution in state: spring/fall/winter
Seasonal distribution in state: neotropical migrants
Foraging strategy: hawking
Foraging sites: air
Foraging sites: snags
Foraging sites specified in comments(005)
Mating system: monogamy
Duration of pair bond: pair for life
Nest/den site specified in comments(011)
Nest/den/spawning site tenacity specified in comments(013)
Nest height specified in comments(014)
Nest materials: no nest structure
Gestation/incubation period specified in comments(017)
Clutch/litter size specified in comments(018)
Number of broods/litter per year: one
Development of young at birth/hatching: altricial
Parental care of young: both parents
Age at sexual maturity specified in comments(022)
Sex ratio: 1:1

Comments about Life History:
Code Comment
028:Hunt over an area with radius up to 16 km *21*
031:Mortality highest during 1st year *21*, mortality of juveniles 70%, adults 25% *26*. Brood size appears to have no effect on the probability of survival of newly fledged young *36*. In CA, survival rate for 2nd years and adults was 86%; for urban-born 1st years, survival was 65%, and for rural-born 1st years it was 28%. *038*
033:Usually seen in MO during spring and fall migration, often in association with concentrations of shorebirds and waterfowl *20*
035:Nest predators include raccoons, great horned owl *26*. Diseases include botulism and trichomoniasis *21,26* myiasis, and filaria *21*. Parasites include lice, flies, roundworms, and spiny-headed worms *21*. Pesticide buildup results in decreased nest success, decreased breeding, and thinning of eggshells *21*
099:Young fledge at 5-6 weeks, remain dependant on parents approximately 30 days after fledging *26*. Average life span 4-5 years *26*.
022:Mature at 2 or 3 years *21*
005:Perch on snags to spot prey *28*
011:Natural nest sites are cliffs, ledges *27,22*
013:Often return to same nest site *27*. In the midwest, 111/147 birds fledged from buildings selected buildings as nest sites; 14/23 fledged on cliffs selected cliffs; 6/8 fledged on smokestacks selected smokestacks. Females were more likely than males to choose a nest site different from their fledging site. *34*. Nests in skyscrapers and bridges *038*.
014:Nest height 10-300 feet *26*
017:Incubation 32 days *26*, 30 days *27*
018:Clutch size 2-6 *27* usually 4 *26,27*

References for life history: 001, 003, 020, 021, 022, 027, 028, 031, 034, 036, 038, 026, 039


Beneficial Management Practices:
Grassland - other (specify in comments)
Urban - develop/maintain artificial nesting sites
Agricultural - other (specify in comments)

Beneficial Management References: 021, 022, 027, 029, 026

Adverse Management Practices:
Shrub/brush - application of herbicides
Shrub/brush - application of pesticides
Shrub/brush - application of insecticides
Agricultural - application of herbicides
Agricultural - application of pesticides
Agricultural - application of insecticides
Grassland - application of herbicides
Grassland - application of pesticides
Grassland - application of insecticides

Adverse Management References: 003, 021, 022, 027, 026

Comments on Management: Beneficial to restrict human disturbance *21,26*. Captive rearing and releasing seems to be successful in some areas *26*. The federal recovery plan involves releasing captive-produced birds, and recommends continued monitoring of the nesting population *30*

References for Management Comments: 021, 030, 026


Reference Code Citation
(001)Easterla, D.A., M.B. Robbins and R.A. Anderson. 1992. Annotated Check-List Of Missouri Birds. The Audubon Society Of Missouri.
(002)American Ornithologists Union. 1957. Checklist Of North American Birds, 5th Ed. Lord Baltimore Press. Baltimore, Md. 691 Pp.
(003)Unpb Wilson, Jim D. Mo Dept. Conserv. P.O. Box 180. Jefferson City, Mo 65102. (573)751-4115.
(004)Birds Of Squaw Creek National Wildife Refuge. 1975. U.S. Fish And Wildlife Service. Rf-663560-2.
(005)Duck Creek Bird Checklist. 1979. Missouri Dept. Of Conservation, Jefferson City, Mo.
(006)Robbins, M. 1975. Fall Survey. Bluebird 42(2):5-7.
(007)Robbins, M. 1977. Spring Survey. Bluebird 44(4):24-28.
(008)Robbins, M. 1977. Spring Survey. Bluebird 44(2):14-18.
(009)Anderson, D. 1973. Winter Survey. Bluebird 40(2):7-8.
(010)Robbins, M. 1978. Fall Survey. Bluebird 45(1):23-29.
(011)Robbins, M. 1978. Spring Survey. Bluebird 45(3):14-20.
(012)Anderson, D. 1973. Fall Survey. Bluebird 40(1):6-9
(013)Anderson, D. 1974. Spring Survey. Bluebird 41(3):3-5.
(014)Heilbrun, L.H. 1979. 1978-1979 Christmas Bird Count. Amer. Birds 33(4):327-707.
(015)Heilbrun, L.H. 1976. 1975-1976 Christmas Bird Count. Amer. Birds 30(2):182-633.
(016)Kleen, V.M. 1979. The Changing Seasons - Middlewestern Prairie Region. Amer. Birds 33(3):285-287.
(017)Kleen, V.M. 1975. The Changing Seasons - Middlewestern Prairie Region. Amer. Birds 29(3):696-700.
(018)Kleen, V.M. 1975. The Changing Seasons - Middlewestern Prairie Region. Amer. Birds 29(4):858-862.
(019)Thom, R.H. and J.H. Wilson. 1980 The Natural Divisions Of Missouri. Trans. Mo Acad. Sci. 14:9-24.
(020)The Checklist Of Rare And Endangered Species Of Missouri. 1991. Mo Dept. Of Conservation. Jefferson City, Mo. 44 Pp.
(021)Ratcliffe, D. 1980. The Peregrine Falcon. Buteo Books. Vermillion, Sd. 416 Pp.
(022)Brown, L. and D. Amadon. 1968. Eagles, Hawks and Falcons Of The World. Vol. 1. Mcgraw-Hill Book Co. Ny, Ny. 414pp.
(023)U.S. Dept. Of The Interior. 1980. Republication Of Lists Of Endangered And Threatened Species And Correction Of Technical Errors In Final Rules. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C. Published In Federal Register 45(99):33768-33781.
(024)The Wildlife Code of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, P.O. Box 180, Jefferson City, MO 65102. 573-751-4115.
(025)Kelly, G. (Ed.) 1986. Animal Habitat Relations Handbook. Mo Dept. Of Conservation and U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Jefferson City, Mo. 293 Pp.
(026)Snow, C. 1972. Habitat Management For Endangered Species. Report No. 1. American Peregrine Falcon Falco Peregrinus Anatum And Arctic Peregrine Falcon Falco Peregrinus Tundrius. U.S.D.I. Bur. Of Land Mgmt. Tech. Note.
(027)Degraaf, R.M., G.M. Whitman, J.W. Lanier, B.J. Hill and J.M. Keniston 1980. Forest Habitat For Birds Of The Northeast. U.S.D.A.F.S. 598 Pp.
(028)Missouri Dept. Of Conservation and U.S. Forest Service. 1985. Management Of Snags And Cavity Trees In Missouri. Mo Cons. Comm, Jefferson City, Mo. 21 Pp.
(029)Missouri Dept. Of Conservation and U.S. Forest Service. 1986. Management Of Old Growth Forests In Missouri. Habitat Management Series No. 3. 16 Pp.
(030)U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1987. Revised Peregrine Falcon Eastern Population Recovery Plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Newton Corner, Ma. 35 Pp.
(031)Unpb Meyer, J. Missouri Dept. Of Conservation. 1907 Hillcrest Drive, Columbia, Mo 65201. 573-882-9880.
(032)Jacobs, B. and J.D. Wilson. 1997. Missouri Breeding Bird Atlas 1986-1992. Mo Dept. Of Conservation. Natural History Series No. 6. Jefferson City, Mo. 430 Pp.
(033)Missouri Natural Heritage Program. 2004. Missouri Species and Communities of Conservation Concern Checklist. Missouri Department Of Conservation. Jefferson City, Missouri. 47 Pp.
(034)Tordoff, H.B., M.S. Martell and P.T. Redig. 1998. Effect Of Fledge Site On Choice Of Nest Site By Midwestern Peregrine Falcons. Loon 70(3):127-129.
(035)Humburg, D.D., K. Bataille, D.L. Helmers and D.A. Brunet. 1999. Wetland Ecology Studies In The Missouri River Floodplain: Evaluation Of Seasonal Habitat Use By Waterbirds On The Missouri River Floodplain Mo Dept. Conserv. Final Rept. Proj. W-13-R-53, Study 18, Job 4. 130 Pp.
(036)Tordoff, H.B., J.S. Castrale, M.S. Martell and P.T. Redig. 2000. Brood size and survival to breeding in midwestern peregrine falcons. J. Field Ornith. 71(4):691-693.
(037)Unpb Big Oak Tree State Park. Bird Checklists. 13640 South Hwy. 102, East Prairie, MO 63845, 573-649-3149.
(038)Kauffman, M.J., W.F. Frick, and J. Linthicum. 2003. Estimation of habitat-specific demography and population growth for Peregrine falcons in California. Ecol. Appl. 13(6): 1802-1816.
(039)Young, N. Personal communication. Big Muddy NFWR, 4200 New Haven Rd, Columbia, MO 65201; (573)441-2948.