Taxonomic Authority: RHOADS

Taxonomy References: 001



Status References: 006

Habitat Summary

"Most often found in bottomland forest *11*"

Primary Habitat: "Forest - bottomland"



General Occurrence in State:

"Has been found in one location in Stone county *02*."

County Occurrence
Known Likely Unknown Not Likely Historic Extirpated

References for distribution: 002

Distribution by Watersheds

James R.


Distribution by Ecoregions


Distribution by Potential Natural Vegetation

Cedar Glades

Distribution by Natural Divisions of Missouri

Ozark: White River

Habitat Associations

Species is associated with "Terrestrial" habitats

National Wetlands Inventory Association:

Aquatic Associations:

References for Aquatic Associations:

Habitat Types:

Limestone Bluff and Cave
Wooded Riparian and Bottomland Hardwood

References for Habitat Types: 011

Terrestrial Natural Communities:


References for Terrestrial Natural Communities:

Food Habits

Trophic Level:


Larval Food Habits

Comments for larval food habits:

References for larval food habits:

Juvenile Food Habits

Comments for juvenile food habits:

References for juvenile food habits:

Adult Food Habits

Coleoptera (beetles); Not Specified
Lepidoptera (butterflies); Not Specified
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitos, gnats); Not Specified

Comments for adult food habits:
"Eat insects, but otherwise little is known about food habits *03"

References for adult food habits: 001, 004

Niche Requirements

Breeding Adult Niche Requirements

Other niche requirements specified in comments(99999)
Natural features: caves, wet
Natural features specified in comments(00280)
Tree cavities specified in comments(00490)
Tree cavities
Human association specified in comments(00690)

References for breeding adult niche requirements: 001, 005

Feeding Adult Niche Requirements

Inland wetlands specified in comments(00250)

References for feeding adult niche requirements: 001

Resting Adult Niche Requirements

Other niche requirements specified in comments(99999)
Tree cavities specified in comments(00490)
Human association specified in comments(00690)

References for resting adult niche requirements: 001, 003

Niche Requirement Summary

Human association specified in comments(00690)
Inland wetlands specified in comments(00250)
Natural features specified in comments(00280)
Natural features: caves, wet
Other niche requirements specified in comments(99999)
Tree cavities
Tree cavities specified in comments(00490)

Comments for all niche requirement fields:
Code Comment
00250:Forage over water *01*.
00280:Caves are preferred roosting sites *03*, especially in the northern part of the range *05*. Are usually found in caves that contain water *01*.
00490:Roost in hollow trees *01,05*. Wintering sites include hollow trees and crevices in bark in florida *01*.
00690:Roosting sites include buildings and other protected shelters *03,01,05*. Roosts in buildings are found more often in the southern part of the range *05*. Sometimes winter under bridges and in boathouses, drainpipes, culverts, and buildings *01*. Use bridges as day roosts *010*.
99999:In winter, leave maternity caves and take up residence in small groups at outdoor sites in the south *03*. Southeastern bats are found in the company of free-tailed bats (tadarida brasiliensis)in buildings, or with gray bats (myotis grisescens) in caves *01*.

Life History Information

Periodicity specified in comments(030)
Regulatory factors specified in comments(035)
Other life history information specified in comments(099)
Origin in state: native
Foraging strategy: flycatching
Foraging sites: air
Foraging height specified in comments(006)
Breeding season specified in comments(007)
Nest/den site: cave
Clutch/litter size specified in comments(018)
Parental care of young: female

Comments about Life History:
Code Comment
007:90% of pregnant females bear twins in late April or mid-May *03*.
030:Clusters of young often are separate from adult females during the day *03*.
006:Forage close to water's surface, feeding on a variety of insects *03*
099:Nursery colonies begin forming in March in caves where water is plentiful *05*. Few males are in the nursery colonies. Most males roost elsewhere, alone, or in small bachelor colonies *01*.
018:At 3 weeks of age the young bats are able to maintain themselves *01*. Young can fly when 5-6 weeks old *03*.
035:Southeastern bats are prey for small carnivores, owls, corn snakes, rat snakes, opossums *01,03,05*. Cockroaches in bat caves eat the very small young that fall to the floor *01*. High mortality of young in maternity caves is occurs because young that drop to the floor are seldom retrieved *01*. Parasites include: streblid fly (trichobius major), nycteribIId fly (basilia boardmani), chiggers (euschoengastia pipistrelli), and mites (olabidocarpus whitakeri) *01*. Humans are the major threat to the species, destructing roosting sites and killing bats *03*.

References for life history: 001, 003, 005


Beneficial Management Practices:
Protect caves from human disturbance

Beneficial Management References: 009

Adverse Management Practices:

Adverse Management References:

Comments on Management: Human destruction of bats' roosting sites and killing of these bats are a major threat to the species *03*. Using fences instead of cave gates to control access to caves was recommended by a FL study, where a steel bar gate apparently altered air flow to the bat roost and obstructed the natural flight path. When the gate was replaced with a fence near the cave entrance, the number of bats using the cave entrance increased significantly *09*

References for Management Comments: 003, 009


Reference Code Citation
(001)Whitaker, J.O. Jr. and W.J. Hamilton, Jr. 1998. Mammals Of Theeastern United States. Third Edition. Cornell University Press, Ithaca,New York, Usa. 583 Pp.
(002)Unpb Elliott, W.R., K.B. Lister, And M.A. Shiver. 1999. A Survey Forozark Big Eared Bats, Corynorhinus Towsendii Ingens, And A Cave Crayfish,Cambarus Aculabrum In Southern Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri, Usa. 29 Pp.
(003)Harvery, M.J., J.S. Altenbach, And T.L. Best. 1999. Bats Of The United States. Arkansas Game And Fish Commission, Arkansas, Usa. 64 Pp.
(004)Zinn, T.L. and S.R. Humprey. 1981. Seasonal Food Resources And Preyselection Of The Southeastern Brown Bat (Myotis Austroriparius) In Florida.Florida Scientist. 44: 81-90.
(005)Whitaker, J.O. Jr. 1996. National Audubon Society Field Guide Tonorth American Mammals. Alfred A. Knopf, New York, Usa. 937 Pp.
(006)Missouri Natural Heritage Program. 2010. Missouri Species and Communities of Conservation Concern Checklist. Missouri Department Of Conservation. Jefferson City, Missouri. 53 Pp.
(007)Rice, D.W. 1957. Life History And Ecology Of Myotis Austroriparius in Florida. Journal Of Mammalogy. 38:15-32.
(008)Hofmann, J.E., J.E. Gardner, J.K. Krejca, And J.D. Garner. 1999.Summer Records And A Maternity Roost Of The Southeastern Myotis (Myotisaustroriparius) In Illinois. Transactions Of The Illinois State Academyof Science. 92:95-107.
(009)Ludlow, M.E. and J.A. Gore. 2000. Effects Of A Cave Gate On Emergence Patterns Of Colonial Bats. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 28(1):191-196.
(010)Feldhamer, G.A., T.C. Carter, A.T. Morzillo, and E.H. Nicholson. 2003. Use of bridges as day roosts by bats in southern Illinois. Trans. IL Acad. Sci. 96(2): 107-112.
(011)Unpb Elliott, Tony. Missouri Dept. of Conservation, 3500 S. Baltimore, Kirksville, MO 63501. 660-785-2420