Taxonomy

Common Name: WESTERN PRAIRIE FRINGED ORCHID
Phylum: MAGNOLIOPHYTA
Class: LILIOPSIDA
Order: ORCHIDALES
Family: ORCHIDACEAE
Genus: PLATANTHERA
Species: PRAECLARA

Taxonomic Authority: SHEVIAK & M.L. BOWLES

Taxonomy References: 001, 002

Status

FEDERAL THREATENED
STATE ENDANGERED
STATE RANK S1
GLOBAL RANK G2

Status References: 006

Habitat Summary

"Occurs in mesic portions of upland prairies and bottomland prairies, often on calcareous or loess-derived soils."

Primary Habitat: "Grassland - native prairie"

References:

Distribution

General Occurrence in State:

"Occurs in northwest Missouri *02*."

County Occurrence
Known Likely Unknown Not Likely Historic Extirpated
ATCHISON   CLINTON 
HARRISON   GREENE 
HOLT   JACKSON 
    JASPER 
    JOHNSON 
    LAWRENCE 
    NEWTON 
    VERNON 

References for distribution: 002, 003, 004, 005

Distribution by Watersheds

Mo. R. from Nishnabotna R. to Nodaway R.
Thompson R.

Comments:
""

Distribution by Ecoregions

""

Distribution by Potential Natural Vegetation

Bluestem Prairie/Oak Hickory Forest

Distribution by Natural Divisions of Missouri

Glaciated Plains: Western
Glaciated Plains: Grand River

Habitat Associations

Species is associated with "" habitats

National Wetlands Inventory Association:

Aquatic Associations:

References for Aquatic Associations:

Habitat Types:

Perennial Grass (Warm season)

References for Habitat Types: 002, 003, 005

Terrestrial Natural Communities:

Prairie
Dry-Mesic Prairie
Mesic Prairie

References for Terrestrial Natural Communities: 002, 003, 005

Food Habits

Trophic Level:

""

Larval Food Habits

Comments for larval food habits:
""

References for larval food habits:

Juvenile Food Habits

Comments for juvenile food habits:
""

References for juvenile food habits:

Adult Food Habits

Comments for adult food habits:
""

References for adult food habits:

Niche Requirements

Niche Requirement Summary

Seeps/springs specified in comments(00210)
Soil type specified in comments(00300)
Successional stage specified in comments(00370)

Comments for all niche requirement fields:
Code Comment
00210:Is found in spring-fed calcareous meadows *08*.
00300:Often found on calcareous or loess-derived soils *02,05*. Grows in moist alkaline soils *08*.
00370:Is found on mesic portions of upland prairies and bottomland prairies *02,08*.

Life History Information

Duration of plant:perennial
Pollination by:insects
Pollination by:see comments(045)
Pollination by:see comments(045)
Life form:herb
Flowering period begins: June
Flowering period ends: July
Fruiting period begins: July
Fruiting period ends: August
Other life history information specified in comments(099)
Origin in state: native
Closely associated plant or animal species specified in comments(003)

Comments about Life History:
Code Comment
003:Associates include Calamagrostis spp., Spartina spp., Sporobolus spp. *003* and Carex lanuginose, and Juncus balticus in the Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium-Panicum virgatum type mesic prairies *010*.
045:Are pollinated nocturnally by sphinx moths *002*.
099:Requires fungal symbionts of the genera Epulorhiza or Ceratorhiza *010*.
045:Probably pollinated by long-tongued hawkmoths *010*.

References for life history: 010, 002, 003, 004, 007

Management

Beneficial Management Practices:
Grassland - other (specify in comments)
Grassland - prohibit grazing
Grassland - prevent woody invasion
Restrict human disturbance
Grassland - prescribed/controlled burning
Grassland - maintain habitat diversity

Beneficial Management References: 007

Adverse Management Practices:
Grassland - application of herbicides
Grassland - application of pesticides
Grassland - uncontrolled grazing of domestic livestock

Adverse Management References: 010, 007, 009

Comments on Management: Detrimental to allow woody species to become established on prairies *07*. Mowing during the growing season and application of pesticides that affect pollinators are detrimental *09*. Decline is due to loss of suitable habitat by conversion of prairie to cropland, collection pressure, poaching, and limited pollination. Requires cold stratification of about 2 mos. *010*

References for Management Comments: 010, 007, 009

References

Reference Code Citation
(001)Yatskievych, G. and J. Turner. 1990. Catalogue Of The Flora Of Missouri. Monographs In Systemic Botany From The Missouri Botanical Garden, V.37. 345 Pp.
(002)Yatskievych, G. 1999. Steyermark's Flora Of Missouri, Volume I (Revised Edition). Missouri Dept. Of Conservation And Missouri Botanical Garden Press. St. Louis, Mo. 991 Pp.
(003)Unpb Flora Of Missouri Database. G. Yatskievych, Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Mo 63166-0299. 314-577-9522.
(004)Unpb Missouri Department Of Conservation Heritage Database. P.O. Box 180, Jefferson City, Mo 65102 573-751-4115.
(005)Summers, B.1996. Missouri Orchids, 3rd Ed. Missouri Dept. Of Conservation Natural History Series, No. 1. Mo Dept. Of Conservation, Jefferson City, Mo. 112 Pp.
(006)Missouri Natural Heritage Program. 2004. Missouri Species and Communities of Conservation Concern Checklist. Missouri Department Of Conservation. Jefferson City, Missouri. 47 Pp.
(007)Unpb Smith, T.E. Missouri Dept. Of Conservation, P.O. Box 180, Jefferson City, M0 65102. 573-751-4115.
(008)Steyermark, J.A. 1963. The Flora Of Missouri. The Iowa State University Press. Ames, IA. 1728 pp.
(009)Missouri Department Of Conservation. Best Management Practices: Western Prairie Fringed Orchid. Mo Dept. Conservation. Jefferson City, Mo.
(010)Sharma, J., L.W. Zettler, J.W. Van Sambeek, M.R. Ellersieck, and C.J. Starbuck. 2003. Symbiotic seed germination and mycorrhizae of federally threatened Platanthera Praeclara (Orchidaceae). Am. Mid. Nat. 149: 104-120.
002, 003, 005, 008